This is part twenty of a series on how to approach bash programming in a way that’s safer and more structured than your basic script.

See part 1 if you want to catch the series from the start.

Last time, we disabled path expansion. This time, let’s discuss variable scoping.

Bash Scoping

Most languages employ what is termed lexical scoping. In general, there is a global scope and a local scope. Global variables are available everywhere, usable from any function. Locally-scoped variables are available only within their own function and nowhere else.

Lexical scoping makes it easy to reason about local variables because they can’t be modified unexpectedly. Only your function gets to change them.

Bash, however, is not lexically scoped. Bash uses what is called dynamic scoping. There are still global and local scopes, but the local scope is not as sacrosanct as it is in lexical scoping.

In dynamic scoping, a local variable is accessible not only to its own function, but also to any function it calls. The function’s local variables appear as global variables to any function it calls.

That’s a problem. In lexical scoping, you can count on a local variable staying the same value from line to line. It only changes if you change it. With dynamic scoping, however, you never know if a function you just called has changed any of your own local variables. Every function call therefore becomes a leap of faith.

For example, consider the following code:

set -o noglob

outer_function () {
  local lvar

  echo $lvar

inner_function () {


The local keyword declares lvar to be local to outer_function. When outer_function calls inner_function however, inner_function operates on the lvar in the closest enclosing runtime scope, which belongs to outer_function. As a result, outer_function’s lvar is changed to “two”, and that’s what outer_function echos.

If you’re careful, you can make sure that your code never modifies the variables of functions which call it. It’s harder to have that assurance with third-party code, however, and being able to use third-party code is part of what we’re trying to accomplish. We’ll address that more in a bit.

On the other side of the coin, the called function also has a novel problem. Access to the global scope is not absolute like in lexical scoping. When trying to read or write a global variable, there is no way to tell whether you’ve just written to the real global variable, or a local variable of the same name in a caller’s scope. Depending on how a function has been called, which may vary from call to call, you may not be able to pass values correctly via global variables.

Reconsider our code above. inner_function had no idea which lvar it was modifying. If we didn’t know about outer_function’s use of lvar, we would have thought that we were modifying a global variable called lvar instead. Depending on whether the variable lvar exists in a caller’s scope, we could get two very different outcomes.

Technically speaking, however, that isn’t 100% true. You can enforce assigning values to the global scope with the declare -g myvar=myvalue statement.

You cannot, however, enforce the reading of a variable from the global scope, so declare -g’s use is limited. For example, you can use it ensure that the value you are returning from a function via a global variable actually makes it to the global scope, but that’s about it.

Locals Only

So, it would be nice if you could somehow get bash to use lexical scoping, but that’s not possible. However, there is at least something you can do to avoid the pitfalls of dynamic scoping.

The first thing to do is to protect the variables of the functions which call your function. The way to do that is to always declare your variables local. By default, bash assumes any variables you reference or create are global, and requires you to declare a variable local if you want it so.

Every function I write has a list of these variables right at the top:

hello_world () {
  local text

  text="hello, world!"
  echo $text

Declaring a variable local means that you’ll never change it outside of your scope by accident, and that when your function ends, the variable ends with it.

The second thing to do would be to protect your local variables from changes by the functions you call.

How? Unfortunately it can’t be guaranteed. You can only do the next best thing, which is to make sure the code you call was authored by someone who follows the same practices you do.

Continue with part 21 - environment variables